Perovskite (discovered in the Ural Mountains of Russia by Gustav Rose in 1839 and is named after Russian mineralogist Lev Perovski 1792–1856) is a calcium titanium oxide mineral composed of calcium titanate (CaTiO3).

Its name is also applied to the class of compounds which have the same type of crystal structure as CaTiO3 \((^{\textrm{XII}}\textrm{A}^{\textrm{2+VI}}\textrm{B}^{4+}\textrm{X}^{2-}_{3})\)

known as the perovskite structure, which includes many synthetic perovskites: many of them are dangerous for humans and the environment.

Crystals of perovskite on matrix. American Museum of Natural History, Clarence Bement collection, donated in 1910.[1]

The symmetry of the crystal is orthorhombic. Crystals are typically cubic, octahedral or combinations of these basic forms. In reality, the symmetry of perovskite and some other minerals of the same group is pseudocubic, because it is slightly distorted with respect to the ideal structure.


  1. Perovskite. Wikimedia. Locality: Magnet Cove, Hot Spring County, Arkansas, USA; size: 2.3×2.1×2.0 cm.

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  1. RESEARCH: A simple one-step method with wide processing window for high-quality perovskite mini-module fabrication.

    SUMMARY: The one-step antisolvent approach is a widely employed method for fabricating perovskite devices at a low cost. However, the current antisolvent approach requires a strict set of processing conditions to obtain high-quality perovskite layers. Here, we introduce sulfolane as an additive in the perovskite precursor to convert the perovskite phase via a new reaction route, providing a large degree of flexibility to process crystalline perovskite layers with high uniformity on a large scale. As it is revealed by X-ray diffraction and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy findings, we find that the key concept lies in intermolecular hydrogen-bonding forces’ interaction between sulfolane and methylammonium iodide, which slows down the nucleation and subsequently the crystallization process.


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