Ecology (from Greek: οἶκος, “house“, or “environment“; -λογία, “study of“) is a branch of biology that study the distribution and abundance of living organisms and how the distribution and abundance are affected by interactions between the organisms and their environment. The environment of an organism includes both physical properties, which can be described as the sum of local abiotic factors such as solar insolation, climate, and geology, as well as the other organisms that share its habitat. Also called ecological science.

Word ecology was first introduced in the field of biology by Ernst Haeckel in 1866. Haeckel’s definition was: investigating the total relationship of the animal (living beings) both to its organic and inorganic environment. In 1927 Charles Elton stated that the natural history related to science is called ecology, further study brought another statement that study of the function and structure of nature said to be ecology (E.P. Odum and de la Cruz, A.A., 1963). After studying the factor involved another definition makes a scientific impact on ecology by stating that; scientific study of interaction that determines the distribution and abundance of an organism (Muhsin, T. and Al-Qadir, A., 1995).

Ecology is the branch of biology concerning co-operations among living beings and their biophysical condition, which incorporates both biotic and abiotic segments. Types of ecology are:

  • Organismal Ecology: the study of physiology and behavior interacting with environmental challenges.
  • Population Ecology: the study of the factor that impacts the number of individuals of species in an era.
  • Community Ecology: the study about interacting with organisms with each other and also with the environment.
  • Ecosystem Ecology: Study of energy flow and chemical cycling in a specific region.