Criminal anthropology is the branch of criminology that studies criminals on the basis of their behavior, their somatic indices, the various morphological abnormalities, integrating them with the data of psychopathology and sociology. Founder of this science is commonly considered Cesare Lombroso, followed by G. Marro, E. Ferri, R. Garofalo, A. Gemelli, N. Pende, B. di Tullio, E. Altavilla, etc..
Criminal anthropology supports the morbid origin of the crimes to the conclusion that the morphological structure of an individual is sufficient to identify a criminal personality. Opposed by Catholics because of the problem of free will and by idealists as an expression of their opposition to positivism, it has, however, had the merit of having highlighted the individual coefficients of crime, to have suggested a prophylaxis of delinquency and to have directed the legislation towards the re-education of the criminal. Focusing on the personality of the criminal rather than on the criminal fact, criminal anthropology has promoted the start of the criminological schools of individualistic and sociological address.