# How-To

## How to calculate electrical impedance

To calculate the impedance of a capacitor, the formula to do so is: $Z_C=\dfrac{1}{2\pi fC}$ where $$Z_C$$ is the impedance in unit ohms, $$f$$ is the frequency of the signal passing through the capacitor, and $$C$$ is the capacitance of the capacitor. To calculate the impedance of an inductor, the formula to do so is: $Z_L=2\pi fL$ …

## How to measure temperature

Temperature measurement is an operation that presents numerous difficulties, which affect the determination of the actual body temperature. In fact, the temperature cannot be measured by fundamental units (i.e., with temperature samples); it can only be determined through the use of suitable calibrated measuring instruments. Generally, these problems arise from the technological imperfections of the …

## How to find the center of mass

The center of mass of an object is the point at which the object can be balanced. Mathematically, it is the point at which the torques from the mass elements of an object sum to zero. The center of mass is useful because problems can often be simplified by treating a collection of masses as one mass …

## Scientific notation

Scientific notation (also referred to as exponential notation) is a concise way of expressing real numbers with many digits that would otherwise be inconvenient to represent in decimal notation. This is accomplished by using integer powers of the base used for the positional notation in use. A number $$\alpha$$ is written in scientific notation if …