Biology (from the Ancient Greek words of βίος; romanized bíos meaning “life” and -λογία; romanized logía (-logy) meaning “branch of study” or “to speak”) is the study of life, that is, the physical and chemical processes of the phenomena that characterize living systems, including their biochemistry, molecular mechanisms, genetics, anatomy, physiology, as well as emerging processes such as adaptation, development, evolution, the interaction between organisms and behavior. This is a very broad definition because the scope of biology is vast.

Fields of investigation of biology

  • on a molecular scale with molecular biology and biochemistry;
  • on a cellular scale with cytology;
  • on a multi-cellular scale with histology;
  • on a systemic scale with neuroscience, immunology, etc.;
  • on a scale of chemical and physical processes of the organism with physiology;
  • on an organism’s development scale through developmental biology;
  • on a single organism scale with zoology, botany, microbiology, etc.;
  • on a population scale of organisms with ecology, and examination of the interactions between them with ethology and psychobiology;
  • on an evolutionary scale with evolutionary systematics and biology.

Branches of biology

  • Anatomy
  • Astrobiology
  • Biochemistry
  • Biogeography
  • Biophysics
  • Biotechnology
  • Botany
  • Cell biology (histology)
  • Chronobiology
  • Developmental biology (embryology, gerontology)
  • Ecology
  • Epidemiology
  • Ethnobiology
  • Evolutionary biology (evolutionary developmental biology, paleobiology, paleoanthropology, paleobotany, paleontology, paleopathology)
  • Genetics
  • Immunology
  • Marine biology
  • Microbiology (bacteriology, mycology, parasitology, virology)
  • Molecular biology (structural biology)
  • Neuroscience
  • Physiology (endocrinology, oncology)
  • Theoretical Biology
  • Systems biology
  • Zoology

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