Bacteriology is the branch of biology that studies morphology, ecology, genetics, and biochemistry of bacteria as well as many other aspects related to them (medicine, industry, and agriculture). Bacteria were discovered in 1676 by Anton von Leeuwenhoek. Modern techniques of study originate from about 1870 with the use of stains and the discovery of culture methods using plates of nutrient agar media. Much pioneering work was done by Louis Pasteur, Robert Koch, and Ferdinand Cohn.