Anatomy (from the Greek ἀνατομή, anatomē, “dissection”, from ἀνατέμνω anatémnō “I cut up, cut open” from ἀνά aná “up”, and τέμνω témnō “I cut”) is the branch of Biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts (the study of form in animals, plants, and other organisms, or specifically in humans). Simply, the study of the internal structure of living organisms.

The anatomy is divided into animal (zootomy) and plant (phytotomy) anatomy. Depending on the organism examined, we are talking about: human, plant and animal anatomy. The study of the relationships between different beings or organs of different beings is called comparative anatomy; when it is limited to a single animal species, it is called special anatomy. Instead, when the object taken into consideration are the diseased organs, we are talking about pathological anatomy.

The first representative of special anatomy is human anatomy; this can be approached from different points of view. From the medical point of view it consists in the knowledge of the exact shape, position, size, variants, development and interrelation of the various parts of the human body in health, and this study is given the terms descriptive or topographical human anatomy.